Home Contact Us FAQs Advanced Search Sitemap
Nixon Presidential Library & Museum
The Life The Times Virtual Library The Museum For Kids For Teachers For Researchers Plan Your Visit News & Events About Us Plan Your Event
THE TIMES
Timeline

Timeline

Richard Nixon was born in 1913 and lived for eighty years. The following list illustrates the wide range of social, cultural, and political events that occurred during this time.

Early Life and Career

  • January 9, 1913
    Richard Nixon is born in Yorba Linda, California, to Frank and Hannah Milhous Nixon.

  • June 28, 1914
    The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, leads within weeks to the outbreak of World War I.

  • November 5, 1917
    The Bolsheviks overthrow the Russian government in Petrograd (later Leningrad, still later St. Petersburg), leading to the formation of a Communist government, the sparking of a civil war within the former Russian empire, and finally, in December 1922, the foundation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

  • August 18, 1920
    Upon the Tennessee legislature's approval of the 19th amendment to the constitution, the document becomes law, guaranteeing that neither the federal government nor the state governments can deny women the right to vote.

  • 1928-1930
    Attends Whittier High School

  • October 29, 1929
    Stock market crash; start of the Great Depression

  • 1930-1934
    Nixon attends Whittier College in Whittier, California

  • 1934-1937
    Nixon attends Duke University Law School in Durham, North Carolina.

  • November 9, 1937
    Admitted to California Bar and joins law firm of Wingert and Bewley in Whittier

  • January 1, 1939
    Becomes a partner in the reorganized law firm of Bewley, Knoop and Nixon; opens a branch office in La Habra, California

  • September 1, 1939
    Germany invades Poland; start of World War II

  • June 21, 1940
    Nixon marries Thelma Catherine ("Pat") Ryan in Riverside, California.

  • December 7, 1941
    Japanese attack on U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor

  • January 9, 1942
    Nixon moves to Washington, D.C., to join the Office of Price Administration, the federal agency charged with regulating wartime prices and and overseeing rationing.

  • September 2, 1942
    Receives commission as Navy Lieutenant (junior grade)

  • 1943-1945
    Nixon serves active duty in the U.S. Navy. Nixon is assigned to South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command as a ground officer; he serves at New Caledonia, Bougainville, and Green Island.

  • August 6, 1945
    Following the end of hostilities in Europe, the war in the Pacific is brought to a close after the first military use of nuclear weapons against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan formally surrenders on September 2, 1945.

  • February 21, 1946
    Daughter Patricia ("Tricia") Nixon is born.

  • March 10, 1946
    Discharged from U.S. Naval Reserve and leaves military as lieutenant commander.

  • November 5, 1946
    Elected to Congress, defeating incumbent Jerry Voorhis

  • January 3, 1947
    Nixon is sworn in as Representative for the Twelfth Congressional District of California. His tenure lasts until his resignation in November 1950 following his election to the Senate. Assigned to House Education and Labor Committee and House Committee on Un-American Activities

  • May 14, 1948
    Manages passage of Mundt-Nixon bill, the first piece of legislation passed by the House Committee on Un-American Activities in ten years, providing for the annual registration of members of the Communist party

  • July 5, 1948
    Daughter Julie Nixon is born.

  • August 5, 1948-December 15, 1948
    Nixon brings former State Department official Alger Hiss to the witness stand of the House Un-American Activities Committee after Whittaker Chambers accuses Hiss of being a Soviet agent. The course of the Hiss case, which ended with Hiss' conviction for perjury, catapults Nixon into national attention.

  • October 1, 1949
    People's Republic of China formally proclaimed

  • November 7, 1950
    Nixon is elected as Senator for California and serves from December 1, 1950, until January 1, 1953.

  • May 1951
    Attends the World Health Organization Conference in Geneva, Switzerland

  • July 11, 1952
    Receives the Republican Vice-Presidential nomination

  • September 23, 1952
    In a nationally televised speech, Nixon responds to charges of improper use of campaign funds, which had jeopardized his spot on the Republican national ticket. During his defense, and after refuting the charges, he states that his wife wears only a "respectable Republican cloth coat" and the only gift he has kept was Checkers, the family's cocker spaniel--giving the appearance its other name, the "Checkers speech".

  • November 4, 1952
    Nixon is elected Vice President of the United States on the ticket of President Dwight Eisenhower.

  • January 20, 1953
    Inaugurated as Vice President

  • June 2, 1953
    Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II

  • August 13, 1953
    Made chairman of the President's committee on government contracts

  • October 6, 1953-December 14, 1953
    Goodwill tour of Asia and Africa

  • December 8, 1954
    Supreme Court decides Brown v. Board of Education, ordering integration of public schools in the United States.

  • June 2, 1955-March 5, 1955
    Goodwill tour of the Caribbean

  • September 24, 1955
    President Eisenhower suffers a heart attack

  • December 1, 1955
    Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat, sparking Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott

  • January 1956-February 1956
    Attends Brazilian presidential inauguration as the representative of the United States

  • June 30, 1956-July 11, 1956
    Goodwill tour of Asia

  • October 23, 1956-November 10, 1956
    Hungarian citizens revolt against the Hungarian government and Soviet influence in Hungary, leading to the occupation of the country by the Soviet Red Army.

  • October 29, 1956-November 7, 1956
    Suez crisis

  • November 6, 1956
    Nixon is re-elected Vice President of the United States to President Dwight Eisenhower.

  • December 18, 1956-December 24, 1956
    Visits Austria to inspect conditions of Hungarian refugees who fled Hungary after the unsuccessful revolt against Communist rule there.

  • January 21, 1957
    Public Inauguration

  • January 27, 1957
    Elvis single "Heartbreak Hotel" released

  • February 28, 1957-March 21, 1957
    Travels to Italy and Africa

  • September 25, 1957
    National Guard troops escort African-American students to class in Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, as part of the desegregation of schools there.

  • October 4, 1957
    Soviet Union launches Sputnik, Earth's first artificial satellite.

  • April 27, 1958-May 15, 1958
    In Latin America trip, Nixon faces anti-Nixon riots in Lima, Peru, on May 8th and in Caracas, Venezuela, on May 13th.

  • November 24, 1958-November 29, 1958
    Travels to England

  • January 31, 1959
    Appointed chairman of Cabinet committee on price stability for economic growth

  • July 22, 1959-August 2, 1959
    Travels to the Soviet Union

  • July 24, 1959
    Nixon participates in spontaneous the "Kitchen Debate" with Soviet Premier Nikita Krushchev in a model kitchen in the American National Exhibition in Moscow. Nixon's strong showing against the Soviet leader gives him a new standing in the United States.

  • August 2, 1959-August 5, 1959
    Visits Poland

  • July 27, 1960
    Nixon receives Republican nomination for President.

  • September 26, 1960-October 21, 1960
    Nixon-Kennedy debates

  • November 8, 1960
    Loses Presidential election

  • March 13, 1961
    Joins Los Angeles law firm of Adams, Duque and Hazeltine

  • April 12, 1961
    Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes first human in space.

  • April 15, 1961
    Bay of Pigs Invasion

  • March 29, 1962
    Six Crises published

  • November 6, 1962
    Nixon is defeated in California gubernatorial race by Democratic incumbent Edmund G. "Pat" Brown. After his defeat becomes clear, Nixon tells reporters "You won't have Nixon to kick around any more, because, gentlemen, this is my last press conference."

  • 1963-1967
    Nixon practices law in New York City. Joins the law firm of Mudge, Stern, Baldwin and Todd. Reorganized firm becomes Nixon, Mudge, Rose, Guthrie and Alexander in 1964.

  • June 16, 1963
    Cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova becomes first woman in space.

  • November 22, 1963
    President John F. Kennedy assassinated

  • February 9, 1964
    The Beatles appear on The Ed Sullivan Show.

  • April 27, 1966
    Argues first case before the Supreme Court

  • September 8, 1966
    First episode of Star Trek broadcast on television.

  • April 4, 1968
    Martin Luther King, Jr., assassinated

  • June 5, 1968
    Robert Kennedy assassinated

  • August 8, 1968
    Nominated as Republican candidate for President

  • August 20, 1968
    Soviet troops invade Czechoslovakia, ending the "Prague Spring"

  • September 16, 1968
    Nixon appears on Rowan and Martin's "Laugh-in"

  • November 5, 1968
    Nixon is elected 37th President of the United States.

  • December 22, 1968
    Nixon's daughter Julie marries Dwight David Eisenhower II, grandson of former president Dwight Eisenhower.

1969

  • January 20
    Richard Milhous Nixon inaugurated President of the United States on the East Portico of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C.
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Inaugural Address (1)


  • February 4
    In Cairo, Yasser Arafat is appointed Palestinian Liberation Organization leader at the Palestinian National Congress, and takes command the next day.

  • February 23-March 2
    Visits European capitals
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks at Andrews Air Force Base on Departing for Europe (66) and Remarks at Andrews Air Force Base on Returning from Europe (94). See also items (67)-(93) for remarks made during the trip.


  • February 24
    The U.S. Supreme Court (Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District) rules that the First Amendment applies to public schools.

  • March 1
    Mickey Mantle of the New York Yankees announces his retirement.

  • March 14
    Asks Congress to approve modified Antiballistic Missile (ABM) System
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement on Deployment of the Antiballistic Missile System (109)


  • March 17 (Eastern Standard Time)
    Nixon orders secret bombings of Cambodia to destroy North Vietnamese supply routes and base camps, commencing with "Operation Breakfast."
    Reference:   Henry Kissinger.   The White House Years. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1979, pgs. 239-254 and H. R. Haldeman.   The Haldeman Diaries. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1994, pgs. 40-41


  • March 25
    John Lennon and Yoko Ono marry in Gibraltar

  • March 28
    General and 34th U.S. President, Dwight D. Eisenhower, dies after a long illness in the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C.

  • April 9
    The Harvard University Administration Building is seized by close to 300 students, mostly members of the Students for a Democratic Society. Before the takeover ends, 45 will be injured and 184 arrested.

  • April 29
    Nixon celebrates Duke Ellington's birthday and awards Ellington the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

  • May 1969
    Nixon orders FBI wiretaps to track the sources of leaks revealing secret bombings of Cambodia.

  • May 13
    Delivers special message to Congress on reforming military draft
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Special Message to the Congress on Reforming the Military Draft (194)


  • May 14
    Supreme Court Justice Abe Fortas, who was appointed by President Lyndon Johnson in 1965, resigns
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Letter Accepting the Resignation of Abe Fortas as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (197)


  • May 21
    Nominates Warren Burger as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks Announcing the Nomination of Judge Warren Earl Burger to be Chief Justice of the United States (209) and Facts on File 1969 pgs. 343F2; 390D2


  • June 8
    Meets with Republic of Vietnam President Nguyen Van Thieu on Midway Island; announces troop reduction in Vietnam
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks at Honolulu Enroute to a Meeting with President Nguyen Van Thieu of the Republic of Vietnam at Midway Island (June 7, 1969) (230); Remarks Following Initial Meeting with President Thieu at Midway Island (231); Joint Statement Following the Meeting with President Thieu (232); Remarks at the Conclusion of Discussion with President Thieu (233); Remarks on Departure from Midway Island (234); Remarks on Return from Meeting with President Thieu at Midway Island (June 10, 1969) (235)


  • June 9
    By a vote of 74-3, Senate confirms nomination of Warren Burger as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
    Reference:   Facts on File 1969 p. 376A1


  • June 23
    Warren Burger takes the judicial oath as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
    Reference:   Facts on File 1969 p. 390D2


  • June 28
    The Stonewall riots in New York City mark the start of the modern gay rights movement in the U.S.

  • July 20
    Apollo 11 lands on the moon. Astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin become the first people to walk on the moon, while crewmate Michael Collins orbits in the Columbia command module.

    ****Listen to the call
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Telephone Conversation with the Apollo 11 Astronauts on the Moon (272)


  • July 25
    Nixon outlines what became known as the Nixon Doctrine whereby the United States would provide arms and aid--but not military forces--to its Asian allies, who would provide their own military forces in resisting communist aggression.
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Informal Remarks in Guam with Newsmen (279)


  • July 26-August 2
    Meets with Asian leaders
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks on Arrival at Manila, the Philippines (281); Remarks on Departure from Pakistan (306); see also items (282)-(305)


  • August 2-3
    Visits Romania
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks on Arrival at Bucharest, Romania (307); Remarks on Departure from Romania (310); see also items 308 and 309


  • August 8
    Nixon announces the Family Assistance Plan, his welfare reform proposal providing direct payments to the working poor. Rejected by Congress, the FAP never became law.
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Address to the Nation on Domestic Programs (324)


  • August 15-August 18
    Woodstock Music and Art Festival

  • August 18
    Nominates Clement F. Haynsworth, Jr., as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Appendix A, August 18, Announcement by the Press Secretary of the nomination of Judge Clement F. Haynsworth, Jr., as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court


  • September 1
    A coup in Libya ousts King Idris and installs Colonel Muammar el-Qaddafi.

  • September 2
    The first automatic teller machine in the United States is installed in Rockville Centre, New York.

  • September 13
    Scooby-Doo, Where are You! (1969-1972) premieres on CBS Saturday Morning.

  • October 15
    Vietnam Moratorium disturbances
    Reference:   John Herbers.   "Vietnam Moratorium observed nationwide by foes of the war." New York Times, October 16, 1969, p.1


  • October 21
    Willy Brandt becomes Chancellor of West Germany

  • October 29
    Supreme Court orders school integration "at once"
    Reference:   Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education, 396 U.S. 1218 (1969)


  • November 3
    Nixon outlines the policy of "Vietnamization" whereby the United States would provide South Vietnam with equipment and financial aid but withdraw American troops. He asks for the support of the "silent majority."
    ****Listen to excerpts from speech
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Address to the Nation on the War in Vietnam (425)


  • November 9
    A group of Amerindians, led by Richard Oakes, seizes the Alcatraz island for 19 months, inspiring a wave of renewed Indian pride and government reform.

  • November 10
    Sesame Street debuts

  • November 14
    NASA launches Apollo 12 (Pete Conrad, Richard Gordon, Alan Bean), the second manned mission to the Moon.

  • November 21
    Senate rejects Nixon's nomination of Clement F. Haynsworth, Jr., as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court by a vote of 55 to 45
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement Following the Senate Vote on the Nomination of Judge Clement F. Haynsworth, Jr., as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court (454) and Facts on File 1969 p. 759C2


  • November 24
    Signs Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement on Signing the Instrument of Ratification of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (458)


  • December 2
    The Boeing 747 jumbo jet makes its debut. It carries 191 people, most of them reporters and photographers, from Seattle to New York City.

  • December 30
    Signs Tax Reform Act of 1969 and Defense Appropriation Act of 1970
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement on Signing the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (501) and Facts on File 1969 p. 839D3


1970

  • January 1
    Signs National Environmental Policy Act of 1969
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks on Signing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (1)


  • January 19
    Nominates G. Harrold Carswell as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Appendix A, January 19, Biographical data on Judge G. Harrold Carswell nominated as Associate Justice, United States Supreme Court and Robert Semple. "Southerner Named to Supreme Court; Carswell, 50, Viewed as Conservative," New York Times, January 20, 1970, p.1


  • January 26
    Vetoes the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW)- Labor Appropriation Bill
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks on Vetoing the Labor-HEW-OEO Appropriations Bill (13) and Veto Message on the Labor-HEW-OEO Appropriations Bill (January 27, 1970) (14)


  • January 26
    Vetoes the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW)- Labor Appropriation Bill

  • March 11
    Announces an expanded program to combat drug abuse
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement Announcing an Expanded Federal Program to Combat Drug Abuse (76)


  • March 18
    United States Postal Service workers in New York City go on strike; the strike spreads to the state of California and the cities of Akron, Philadelphia, Chicago, Boston, and Denver; 210,000 out of 750,000 U.S. postal employees walk out. President Nixon assigns military units to New York City post offices. The strike lasts two weeks.

  • March 25
    The Concorde makes its first supersonic flight (700 mph/1127 km/h).

  • April 1
    President Richard Nixon signs the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act into law, banning cigarette television advertisements in the United States, starting on January 1, 1971.

  • April 8
    Senate rejects Nixon's nomination of G. Harrold Carswell as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court by a vote of 51 to 45
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks to Reporters About Nominations to the Supreme Court (108) and Statement About Nominations to the Supreme Court (109) both made on April 9, as well as Facts on File 1970 p. 237D2


  • April 11
    Apollo 13 (Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, Jack Swigert) is launched toward the Moon. On April 13, an oxygen tank in the spacecraft explodes, forcing the crew to abort the mission. They return safely to Earth on April 17.

  • April 14
    Nominates Harry A. Blackmun as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement About Nominations to the Supreme Court (108 ftn.) and Appendix A, April 14


  • April 18
    Nixon presents the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Apollo 13 astronauts.

  • April 22
    The first Earth Day is celebrated.

  • April 30
    Announces the launching of military attacks on enemy sanctuaries in Cambodia
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Address to the Nation on the Situation in Southeast Asia (139)


  • May 4
    National Guardsmen fire on antiwar demonstrators at Kent State University protesting the American invasion of Cambodia, killing four and wounding nine students.
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement on the Deaths of Four Students at Kent State University, Kent, Ohio (140)


  • May 9
    One hundred thousand people demonstrate in Washington, DC against the Vietnam War.

  • May 12
    By a vote of 94-0, Senate confirms nomination of Harry A. Blackmun as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
    Reference:   Facts on File 1970 p. 326A1


  • June 10
    Announces extension of Welfare Reform proposals
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement Announcing Extensions of Welfare Reform Proposals (183) and Facts on File 1970 p. 420E2


  • June 18
    Edward Heath is elected Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the general election.

  • July 9
    Announces plan to establish the Environmental Protection Agency and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Special Message to the Congress about Reorganization Plans to Establish the Environmental Protection Agency and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (215)


  • September 1970
    The Jordan Crisis, also known as "Black September," marks violence against Palestinian attempts to overthrow King Hussein's monarchy.

  • September 18
    Jimi Hendrix, guitarist and singer, dies

  • September 21
    NFL Monday Night Football premieres on ABC

  • September 27-October 5
    Visits Italy, Vatican City, Yugoslavia, Spain, and Great Britain
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks on Arrival in Rome, Italy (304) and Remarks at Andrews Air Force Base on Returning from Europe (329). See also items (305)-(328)


  • October 1970
    The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) begins broadcasting.

  • October 4
    Janis Joplin, singer, dies

  • October 17
    Anwar Sadat officially becomes President of Egypt

  • December 21
    Elvis Presley meets President Nixon in the Oval Office
    Reference:   Nixon Presidential Materials.   White House Central Files HE 5-1 [EX], December 21, 1970, memo for the President and the National Archives' exhibit When Nixon Met Elvis


  • December 31
    Signs Clean Air Act of 1970
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks on Signing the Clean Air Amendments of 1970 (485). As enacted, the bill (H.R. 17255) is Public Law 91-604 (84 Stat. 1676).


1971

  • January 31
    Apollo 14 (Alan Shepard, Stuart Roosa, Edgar Mitchell) lifts off on the third successful lunar landing mission.

  • February 5
    Apollo 14 lands on the moon.

  • February 8
    A new stock market index called the Nasdaq debuts.

  • February 9
    Satchel Paige becomes the first Negro League player to become voted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.

  • February 11
    Signs Executive Order 11582, "Observance of Holidays by Government Agencies," announcing the new Federal holiday calendar. This change adds Columbus Day as a legal public holiday and designates certain Mondays for five of the nine holidays. Nixon did not issue a proclamation changing the Federal holiday's name from "Washington's Birthday" to "President's Day."
    Reference:   C. L. Arbelbide, "By George, It IS Washington's Birthday," Prologue Winter 2004: 31-37.


  • February 16
    Begins secretly recording conversations and meetings in the Oval Office and in the Cabinet Room
    Reference:   John Powers, "The History of Presidential Audio Recordings and the Archival Issues Surrounding Their Use" (1996) available at:   the Miller Center


  • March 1
    A bomb explodes in the men's room on the Senate side of the U.S. Capitol; the Weather Underground claims responsibility.

  • March 17
    Signs increase in Social Security benefits
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement on Signing Bill Increasing Social Security Benefits (107)


  • April 1971-May 1971
    "MayDay" demonstrations in Washington, D.C., and across the country

  • April 20
    Supreme Court rules that busing children as a means of dismantling dual school systems is constitutional
    Reference:   Swann v. Board of Education, 402 U.S. 1 (1971) and Facts on File 1971 p. 290C1


  • April 24
    Five hundred thousand people in Washington, DC and 125,000 in San Francisco march against the Vietnam War.

  • June 10
    Ends U.S.-China trade embargo
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Appendix A, June 10, Statement: announcing termination of trade controls on nonstrategic U.S. exports to and imports from the People's Republic of China--by Press Secretary Ronald L. Ziegler


  • June 12
    Daughter Patricia ("Tricia") Nixon marries Edward Ridley Finch Cox at the White House.
    Reference:   Washington Post "TV Coverage" June 12, 1971 "There will be no live television coverage of the White House wedding of Tricia Nixon and Edward Finch Cox today" p. C2


  • June 13
    New York Times begins publishing the "Pentagon Papers" that revealed duplicity of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations' Vietnam policy.
    Reference:   Sheehan, Neil. "Vietnam Archive: Pentagon Study Traces 3 Decades of Growing U. S. Involvement." New York Times, June 13, 1971, p. 1


  • June 30
    Twenty-sixth amendment to the Constitution adopted granting eighteen-, nineteen-, and twenty-year-olds the right to vote
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement about ratification of the 26th Amendment to the Constitution (219)


  • July 3
    Jim Morrison, is found dead in a bath tub in Paris, France aged 27.

  • July 9
    Nixon sends National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger to Peking, China, to arrange with Prime Minister Chou en Lai a visit for President Nixon.

  • July 12
    Signs Emergency Employment Act
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks on Signing the Emergency Employment Act of 1971 (227) and Statement about the Emergency Employment Act of 1971 (228)


  • July 15
    Announcement of the President's forthcoming trip to the People's Republic of China
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks to the Nation Announcing Acceptance of an Invitation to Visit the People's Repbulic of China (231)


  • August 5
    Establishes the National Business Council for Consumer Affairs
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement on Signing Executive Order Establishing the National Business Council for Consumer Affairs (252)


  • August 15
    Under the authority of the Economic Stabilization Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 799), announces Phase I of the Economic Stabilization Program, a new economic policy of wage and price controls and a new international economic system that results in the end of the gold standard
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Address to the Nation Outlining a New Economic Policy: "The Challenge of Peace" (264) and Executive Order 11615


  • September 3
    Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin is signed by the United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom and France to establish trade and travel relations between West Berlin and West Germany and communications between East Berlin and West Berlin.

    Reference:   Facts on File 1971 p. 686F3 "Envoys sign Berlin draft. The four envoys who negotiated the Berlin draft agreement in August signed the accord Sept. 3 after it had been approved by the governments of the U.S., Britain, France, and the Soviet Union, the countries with responsibility for the future of Berlin."


  • September 17
    Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black, who was appointed by President Franklin Roosevelt in 1937, resigns
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks at a Question-and-Answer Session with a 10-Member Panel of the Economic Club of Detroit (297 ftn. p. 976)


  • September 23
    Supreme Court Justice John Marshall Harlan, who was appointed by President Eisenhower in 1955, resigns
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks at a Question-and-Answer Session with a 10-Member Panel of the Economic Club of Detroit (297 ftn. p. 976)


  • October 1
    Walt Disney World opens in Florida.

  • October 21
    Nominates Lewis F. Powell, Jr., and William H. Rehnquist as Associate Justices of the Supreme Court
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Address to the Nation Announcing Intention to Nominate Lewis F. Powell, Jr., and William H. Rehnquist to be Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States (337)


  • November 14
    Phase II of the Economic Stabilization Program goes into effect
    Reference:   Facts on File 1971 p. 887A1. "Phase Two begins" and Executive Order 11627


  • November 22-December 16
    The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 leads to India's victory and independence of Bangladesh.
    Reference:   Facts on File 1971 pgs. 846, 863, 885, 901, 924, 941, 961-963, and 985


  • December 6
    By a vote of 89 to 1, Senate confirms Lewis F. Powell, Jr., as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement about Senate Confirmation of Lewis F. Powell, Jr., and William H. Rehnquist as Associate Justices of the Supreme Court (391) and Facts on File 1971 p. 947F2


  • December 10
    By a vote of 68 to 26, Senate confirms William H. Rehnquist as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement about Senate Confirmation of Lewis F. Powell, Jr., and William H. Rehnquist as Associate Justices of the Supreme Court (391) and Facts on File 1971 p. 970F2


1972

  • January 7
    Announces candidacy for a second Presidential term
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Letter Announcing Candidacy for Renomination and Reelection (6)


  • January 7
    Lewis F. Powell, Jr., and William H. Rehnquist take the judicial oath as Associate Justices of the Supreme Court
    Reference:   Facts on File 1972 p. 9C1


  • February 7
    Signs Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement on Signing the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (46)


  • February 21-28
    Visits People's Republic of China
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Chronology of Visit to the People's Republic of China (63A). See also items (64)-(73)


  • March 25
    Signs Equal Employment Opportunities Act of 1972
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement about Signing the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972 (105)


  • April 20
    Bob Hope visits the White House.

  • May 8
    Announces mining of North Vietnamese harbors
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Address to the Nation on the Situation in Southeast Asia (147)


  • May 15
    George C. Wallace, Governor of Alabama, shot while campaigning
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement about Attempt on Life of Governor George C. Wallace of Alabama (151)


  • May 20-June 1
    Visits Austria, U.S.S.R., Iran, and Poland and signs the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT)
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Chronology of Visit to Austria, the Soviet Union, Iran, and Poland (162A). See also items (163)-(188)


  • June 17
    Five burglars from a domestic espionage network working for the Commitee to Re-Elect the President are arrested inside the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Washington, D.C., Watergate office complex.
    Reference:   Watergate: Chronology of a Crisis.   Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1975, p. xv


  • June 23
    Haldeman and Nixon discuss the progress of the FBI's investigation, especially the tracing of the source of money found on the burglars. They propose having the CIA ask the FBI to halt its investigation of the Watergate break-in by claiming that the break-in was a national security operation. This conversation is commonly referred to as the "smoking gun."  [See Also:  "Smoking Gun" Conversation]
    Reference:   Nixon Presidential Materials.   White House Tapes, June 23, 1972, Conversation Number 741-2


  • June 29
    Supreme Court rules the death penalty unconstitutional
    Reference:   Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972)


  • July 1
    Signs Veterans' Compensation and Relief Act of 1972
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement about Signing the Veterans' Compensation and Relief Act of 1972 (218)


  • August 1
    A $25,000 cashier check designated for the Nixon campaign is found in the bank account of a Watergate burglar.

  • August 23
    Accepts the Presidential nomination of the Republication National Convention in the Convention Hall, Miami Beach, Florida
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks on Accepting the Presidential Nomination of the Republican National Convention (266)


  • September 5
    Olympic Games disrupted when Palestinian terrorists kill eleven Israeli athletes
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks to Reporters about the Assault on Israeli Athletes at the Olympic Games in Munich, Germany (287)


  • November 7
    Nixon is re-elected to a second term in the largest land-slide victory in American political history.
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks on Being Reelected to the Presidency (414)


  • November 8
    Home Box Office (HBO) is launched.

  • December 18-30
    "Christmas bombing" of North Vietnam
    Reference:   Information Please Almanac Atlas and Yearbook 1974.   New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973, p.68 and Facts on File 1972 p.1013A1


  • December 30
    Announces halt to bombing in North Vietnam
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Appendix B, December 30, "...In a news briefing following the announcement, Deputy Press Secretary Gerald L. Warren stated, 'The President has ordered that all bombing will be discontinued above the 20th parallel as long as serious negotiations are under way.'" and Information Please Almanac Atlas and Yearbook 1974.   New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973, p.68


1973

  • January 11
    Phase III of the Economic Stabilization Program goes into effect
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Special Message to the Congress Announcing Phase III of the Economic Stabilization Program and Requesting Extension of Authorizing Legislation (6) and Executive Order 11695


  • January 20
    Inauguration
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Oath of Office and Second Inaugural Address (8)


  • January 22
    Supreme Court rules in Roe v. Wade, stating that the constitutional right to privacy "is broad enough to encompass a woman's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy."
    Reference:   Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973)


  • January 22
    George Foreman beats Joe Frazier by a knockout in two rounds to lift the world's Heavyweight championship from Frazier. It is HBO Boxing's first telecast.

  • January 23
    Announces agreement reached on end to Vietnam War
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Address to the Nation Announcing Conclusion of an Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam (12)


  • January 27
    Peace treaty ending the Vietnam War signed in Paris
    Reference:   Information Please Almanac Atlas and Yearbook 1974.   New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973, p.68 and Public Papers. Address to the Nation Announcing Conclusion of an Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam (12)


  • January 30
    James McCord and G. Gordon Liddy convicted of conspiracy, burglary, and wiretapping
    Reference:   Watergate: Chronology of a Crisis.   Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1975, p. xxi; 9-11; Ford Library Watergate Exhibit and United States v. George Gordon Liddy, Everett Howard Hunt, James W. Mccord, Bernard L. Barker, Eugenio R. Martinez, et al. (U. S. District Court for the District of Columbia CR 827-72)


  • February 7
    U.S. Senate creates the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities with Senate Resolution 60
    Reference:   Watergate: Chronology of a Crisis.   Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1975, p. 3 and Ford Library Watergate Exhibit


  • February 12
    First group of Vietnam Prisoners of War (POWs) returns
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement on the Return of the First Group of American Prisoners of War from Southeast Asia (February 11) (38) and James P. Sterba, "Airlift is Begun." New York Times, February 12, 1973, p.1


  • March 21
    Conversation among President Nixon, John Dean, and H. R. Haldeman. Dean recaps the history of the Watergate break- in and subsequent cover-up for the President. Dean tells the President that the cover-up is "a cancer on the Presidency" that must be excised or his Presidency would be in danger.  [See Also:  Watergate Trial Conversations Transcripts and Audio]
    Reference:   Nixon Presidential Materials.   White House Tapes, March 21, 1973, Conversation Number 886-8


  • March 27
    Vetoes Vocational Rehabilitation Bill
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Veto of the Vocational Rehabilitation Bill (91)


  • April 4
    Ribbon-cutting ceremony for the World Trade Center in NYC

  • April 17
    Federal Express officially begins operations, with the launch of 14 small aircraft from Memphis International Airport.

  • April 30
    Accepts the resignations of Assistant to the President H. R. Haldeman, Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs John D. Ehrlichman, Attorney General Richard Kleindienst, and Counsel to the President John Dean. Accepts responsibility for the Watergate affair
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement Announcing Resignation of the Attorney General and Members of the White House Staff, and Intention to Nominate Elliot L. Richardson to be Attorney General (133)


  • May 1
    Senate votes for a resolution calling for the appointment of a Watergate special prosecutor
    Reference:   Watergate: Chronology of a Crisis.   Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1975, p. 28 and Senate Resolution 105


  • May 2
    Signs bill extending Economic Stabilization Act of 1970
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement about Signing a Bill Extending the Economic Stabilization Act of 1970 (137)


  • May 17-August 7
    Each network aired coverage in rotation every third day (ABC was first, then CBS and NBC).

  • July 1
    The United States Drug Enforcement Administration is founded.

  • July 11
    Signs bill increasing Social Security benefits
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement about Signing a Bill Increasing Social Security Benefits (200)


  • July 12
    Last Presidential conversation recorded on the secret taping system.
    Reference:   Nixon Presidential Materials Staff, National Archives and Records Administration


  • July 13
    During a private interview with investigators from the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, Alexander P. Butterfield, administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and a former White House aide, reveals the existence of the secret White House taping system in advance of his public testimony
    Reference:   Hearings Before the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities of the United States Senate, Phase I: Watergate Investigation, Book 5. Washington: GPO, 1973


  • July 16
    During his testimony at the public hearings of the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, Alexander Butterfield publicly reveals the existence of the White House taping system and details specifics of how the system worked
    Reference:   Hearings Before the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities of the United States Senate, Phase I: Watergate Investigation, Book 5. Washington: GPO, 1973


  • July 18
    Phase IV of the Economic Stabilization Program goes into effect
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement Announcing Measures to be Taken under Phase IV of the Economic Stabilization Program (207) and Executive Order 11730


  • July 31
    Representative Robert F. Drinan (D-Mass.) introduces impeachment resolution in Congress
    Reference:   Information Please Almanac Atlas and Yearbook 1974.   New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973, p. 24 and Lyons, Richard L. "Impeachment Move Offered." Washington Post, August 1, 1973, p. A1


  • August 10
    Signs Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement on Signing the Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 (231)


  • September 20
    Billie Jean King defeats Bobby Riggs in a televised tennis match.

  • September 22
    Henry A. Kissinger sworn in as Secretary of State
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks at the Swearing In of Henry A. Kissinger as Secretary of State (268)


  • October 6-24
    Arab-Israeli War (Yom Kippur War) occurs when a coalition of Arab nations led by Egypt and Syria attacks Israel.
    Reference:   Kissinger, Henry. Years of Upheaval. Boston: Little Brown, 1982 pgs. 450-575


  • October 10
    Vice President Spiro T. Agnew resigns after corruption charges beginning when he was county executive of Baltimore County, Maryland. Gerald R. Ford replaced Agnew as Vice President.
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Letter to Spiro T. Agnew about his Decision to Resign as Vice President (290)


  • October 12
    Nominates House Minority Leader Gerald R. Ford for Vice President
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks Announcing Intention to Nominate Gerald R. Ford to be Vice President (294)


  • October 20
    Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus resign rather than fire the Watergate Special Prosecutor, Archibald Cox. Acting Attorney General Robert Bork fires Cox. These events are commonly referred to as the "Saturday Night Massacre."
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Letter Accepting the Resignation of Elliot L. Richardson as Attorney General (308) and Letter Directing the Acting Attorney General to Discharge the Director of the Office of Watergate Special Prosecution Force (309)


  • October 24
    Vetoes War Powers Resolution
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Veto of the War Powers Resolution (311)


  • November 17
    To the Associated Press managing editors, Nixon says, "People have got to know whether or not their President is a crook. Well, I'm not a crook."

  • November 29
    Atari kicks off the first generation of video games with the release of their seminal arcade version of PONG, the first game to achieve commercial success

  • December 6
    Gerald R. Ford becomes Vice President
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Appendix B, December 6, "The President accompanied Gerald R. Ford to the House Chamber at the Capitol where Mr. Ford took the oath of office as the 40th Vice President of the United States."


  • December 11
    Signs bill establishing American Revolution Bicentennial Administration
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks on Signing a Bill Establishing the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration (356) and (87 Stat. 697)


1974

  • January 2
    Signs Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement on Signing the Emergency Highway Energy Conservation Act (3)


  • February 6
    House of Representatives votes to proceed with their Presidential impeachment probe
    Reference:   Watergate: Chronology of a Crisis.   Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1975, p. 521; Ford Library Watergate Exhibit; and House Resolution 803


  • February 19
    Meets with Foreign Minister Saqqaf of Saudi Arabia and Foreign Minister Fahmy of Egypt on prospects for peace in the Middle East
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks Following a Meeting with Arab Foreign Ministers to Discuss Prospects for Peace in the Middle East (52)


  • February 27
    People magazine is published for the first time.

  • March 6
    Vetoes Energy Emergency Bill
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Veto of the Energy Emergency Bill (69)


  • April 8
    Signs Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1974
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement on Signing the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1974 (104)


  • April 8
    Hank Aaron hits his career home run # 715, breaking Babe Ruth's career home run record.

  • April 29
    Announces that Nixon is publishing transcripts of forty-six taped conversations subpoenaed by the Watergate Special Prosecutor and the House Judiciary Committee
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Address to the Nation Announcing Answer to the House Judiciary Committee Subpoena for Additional Presidential Tape Recordings (122)


  • May 7
    Signs Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks on Signing the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (130)


  • June 10-19
    Visits Austria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Israel, and Jordan
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks on Departure for the Middle East (170). See also items (171)-(193)


  • June 25-July 3
    Visits Belgium and the Soviet Union
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks on Departure for Belgium and the Soviet Union (198). See also items (199)-(211)


  • July 24
    Supreme Court rules in U.S. v. Nixon that President Nixon must hand over subpoenaed tapes to John Sirica, U.S. District Court Chief Judge
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Statement Announcing Intention to Comply with Supreme Court decision Requiring Production of Presidential Tape Recordings (228) and 418 U.S. 683 (1974)


  • July 27 -30
    House Judiciary Committee adopts three articles of impeachment against the President
    Reference:   Watergate: Chronology of a Crisis.   Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1975, p. 752 and Ford Library Watergate Exhibit


  • August 8
    In a television broadcast, Nixon announces to the nation that his resignation that would be effective the next day.  [See Also:  Resignation Letter]
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Address to the Nation Announcing Decision to Resign the Office of the President of the United States (244)


  • August 9
    Leaves office. At 10:00 a.m. boards helicopter on the South Grounds of the White House and flies to Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. From there, flies to El Toro Marine Corps Air Station, California aboard the Spirit of 76.
    Reference:   Public Papers.   Remarks on Departure from the White House (245) and Nixon Presidential Materials. Daily Diary, August 9, 1974, Box RC 14


Post-Presidency

  • September 8, 1974
    Nixon accepts the pardon of President Gerald Ford "for all offenses against the United States which he, Richard Nixon, has committed or may have committed or taken part in during the period from January 20, 1969 through August 9,1974."

  • August 8-September, 1985
    In a five-week fact-finding trip, Nixon visits and meets with top leaders in China, Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Burma, Pakistan, Turkey, and Great Britain.

  • 1986
    Nixon meets with Mikhail Gorbachev.

  • June 22, 1993
    Mrs. Nixon dies at home in Park Ridge, New Jersey.

  • April 22, 1994
    Nixon dies in New York City.

About the References

In many cases, the source cited is the Public Papers of the Presidents:   Richard Nixon.

  • The numbers in parentheses refer to the item number of the statement in the Public Papers, not the page number.

The Public Papers of the Presidents volumes are available in print at many public or university libraries and on the following web sites:

Timeline
Early Life and Career
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
Post Presidency


Home Contact Us FAQs Advanced Search Sitemap

The Nixon Library and Museum is part of the presidential libraries system administered by the National Archives
and Records Administration
, a federal agency. View our Privacy Statement. View our Accessibility Statement.